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Ecco come prevenire l’effetto Jet Lag!

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Il jet lag, anche conosciuto come disritmia, discronia o disincronosi circadiana, è un “disturbo del sonno” temporaneo causato dall’ attraversamento rapido di diversi fusi orari ad una velocità troppo sostenuta per un corretto adattamento dell’orologio biologico, e quindi del ritmo circadiano, che regola i processi fisiologici degli esseri viventi.

Questa cosiddetta “fatica del viaggiatore” determina una serie di disturbi quali astenia diurna (vale a dire stanchezza e affaticamento durante la giornata), disturbi del sonno, sensazione di malessere generale, per esempio nausea, mal di testa, dolori muscolari, problemi all’apparato gastro-intestinale, capacità fisiche e mentali ridotte, dovute alla difficoltà di concentrazione e al nervosismo. Tutti questi disturbi vengono denominati nell’insieme “sindrome da fuso orario”.

Ecco alcuni consigli per prevenire e superare al meglio questo fenomeno:

• Prima di partire: nei giorni precedenti al volo sarebbe utile iniziare ad abituarsi progressivamente all’orario del luogo di destinazione per poter regolare il sonno ed adattarsi agli orari dei pasti, anticipando o posticipando progressivamente entrambi i momenti ancor prima di partire;

• Durante il volo: senza neanche accorgercene, durante i voli siamo soggetti ad una forte disidratazione dovuta alla scarsa presenza di umidità all’interno della cabina; chi è disidratato è meno capace di fronteggiare situazioni di stress perché i avverte i sintomi come amplificati. È quindi importantissimo bere molta acqua ed evitare alcool, caffè, bibite gassate e zuccherate che possono modificare i livelli di energia dell’organismo.

• Giunti a destinazione: sarebbe bene cercare di rispettare gli orari locali per quanto riguarda pasti e riposo; se proprio non si riesce, è possibile concedersi un breve riposo di massimo 45 minuti, per evitare l’effetto “sbronza” dovuto all’eccessiva durata del sonno. Importantissima per un rapido adattamento e ripristino del ritmo circadiano è l’esposizione alla luce solare della destinazione per la produzione di melatonina da parte dell’organismo.

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