Home»Alimentazione»Bere per dimagrire? Il parere dell’esperto Emanuele Scafato

Bere per dimagrire? Il parere dell’esperto Emanuele Scafato

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“Altro che bere per dimagrire. Chi ha come obiettivo la perdita di peso o il mantenimento di quello attuale, tutto dovrebbe fare, fuorché alzare il gomito. Mi arrivano ogni giorno segnalazioni a dir poco imbarazzanti che riferiscono tesi di merito relative a birra, vino e presunte proprietà miracolose di dimagrimento e, addirittura, di equivalenza tra l’uso di alcol e ore di attività fisica spese nello sforzo di perdere peso. Informiamoci bene e vediamo cosa riferisce la Scienza”.
Ad intervenire sul tema dimagrimento e alcol è Emanuele Scafato, Direttore del Centro OMS per la Ricerca e la Promozione della Salute sull’Alcol e Direttore dell’Osservatorio Nazionale ALCOL dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità.

Alcune segnalazioni, diffuse sul web, si spingono a consigliare di «eliminare gli alcolici e la birra e continuare a bere vino».
Altre si riferiscono a documenti di ricercatori di cui spesso è arduo reperire dichiarazioni di assenza di conflitti d’interesse oppure è evidente la manipolazione dei risulti scientifici e dei commenti degli autori.

La realtà è che la comunità scientifica, e il buon senso, ci ricordano che l’alcol è una sostanza calorica con sette chilocalorie per grammo che fanno di un bicchiere medio, di qualunque bevanda alcolica, una componente importante nell’introito calorico giornaliero.

È facile calcolare che un semplice bicchiere ai pasti ne aggiunge circa dalle 5400 alle 7000 chilocalorie: un chilogrammo di peso se non smaltite.
Si tratta inoltre di calorie «vuote», ovvero inutili per l’organismo, in quanto non legate a una proprietà nutriente in particolare.

Che ci possa essere qualcuno a consigliare di bere per dimagrire, quindi, non è il massimo.
Il sovrappeso lo si combatte con stili di vita salutari che prevedono una restrizione calorica e un incremento dell’esercizio fisico, non bevendo.
Questo perché, come dimostrato da una ricerca, più si beve e maggiore è il rischio che il passo successivo sia mangiare.

I ricercatori del Francis Crick Institute (Londra) hanno dimostrato tale tesi somministrando a dei topi dosi di vino, corrispondenti al quantitativo di una bottiglia e mezzo, per tre giorni.
Come conseguenza, gli animali hanno aumentato la richiesta di cibo.
L’etanolo si è confermato in grado di stimolare il senso del gusto agendo sui neuroni che stimolano la fame.
Secondo i ricercatori, capire come l’alcol cambia il corpo e il nostro comportamento potrebbe essere utile per gestire l’obesità.
La scienza ci dice che dopo aver assunto alcol l’uomo è portato a mangiare alimenti ricchi in carboidrati e/o di scarsa qualità: snack, dolci e salati, panini, pasta e pizza. Ciò spiega perché molte persone mangiano di più quando bevono. Attenzione dunque all’«effetto aperitivo»: la conseguenza potrebbe essere un indesiderato aumento del giro vita.

Il risultato dello studio è importante anche per tutti quei ragazzi che praticano il «binge drinking»: la pratica del bere eccessivo episodico e ricorrente che mette in immediato pericolo la salute e la sicurezza per gli inevitabili effetti acuti come:

  • perdita di controllo
  • abbassamento della percezione del rischio
  • perdita dei riflessi, dell’orientamento, della coordinazione e dell’integrità psico-fisica

tutte tra le prime cause di morte giovanile in Italia per incidenti stradali dovuti all’alcol.

L’abitudine protratta nel tempo produce effetti cronici, con possibili danni multiorgano (fegato e cervello i più vulnerabili), con steatosi epatica che evolve in epatite alcolica e cirrosi in tempi ben più precoci che in passato e danni cerebrali tipici della perdita dei neuroni deputati alla memoria necessaria all’orientamento nello spazio.
Se poi aggiungiamo la comparsa di temibili disturbi alimentari, su tutti l’anoressia, la bulimia e la «drunkoressia», il quadro non è tra i più incoraggianti.

La drunkoressia porta a diminuire le calorie assunte tramite i cibi per poter assumere più calorie sotto forma di alcol senza però aumentare di peso. In questo caso si tratta di una doppia patologia, sia fisica che mentale, molto pericolosa.

Il problema dell’alcol per i giovani è reale anche in Italia.

Il 17% di tutte le intossicazioni alcoliche registrate nei Pronto Soccorso è a carico di ragazzi e ragazze con meno di 14 anni.
Al di sotto dei 21 anni l’organismo non ha maturato la capacità tipica dell’adulto di demolire l’alcol, che circola immodificato nell’organismo agendo direttamente sulle strutture più vulnerabili.
A peggiorare la già negativa circostanza c’è l’immaturità del cervello, nel periodo che va dai 12 ai 25 anni.
L’alcol interferisce sul processo di maturazione e cristallizza la cognitività e il comportamento in una fase che la natura provvede a far evolvere in un senso di maggiore responsabilità e capacità adeguata di reazione agli stimoli esterni.

Il messaggio da portare a casa? L’alcol non giova mai alla salute e se si sceglie di bere è opportuno che tale abitudine sia basata su scelte informate, anche per il piacere che si può ricercare in quantità che non eccedano le linee guida per una sana alimentazione.

Il messaggio «meno è meglio» rifugge l’identificazione di soglie perché non esistono quantità che non nuocciano alla salute ma solo evidenze che a qualunque quantità, anche in funzione di una estrema variabilità individuale, è registrabile un rischio che cresce al crescere delle quantità.

Se poi si decide di fare prevenzione oncologica, il Codice Europeo contro il Cancro ci suggerisce che non bere è la scelta migliore.

Corri per il Cuore! Cardio Race

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