Home»Prevenzione»In arrivo il preservativo digitale. Ci proteggerà dalle MST

In arrivo il preservativo digitale. Ci proteggerà dalle MST

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Nei prossimi mesi è in arrivo un anello da posizionare sulla base del preservativo: è in grado di comunicare via bluetooth con lo smartphone e, tra le tante cose che segnala, c’è anche l’eventuale presenza di malattie sessualmente trasmesse.

Sarà un’arma in più per frenare la diffusione di queste infezioni, in costante aumento, che si trasmettono attraverso i rapporti sessuali, come clamidia, sifilide, gonorrea e Hiv.

Secondo uno studio del Centro europeo di prevenzione e controllo delle malattie, appena pubblicato su The Lancet, la percentuale annua di aumento dei nuovi casi di Hiv tra il 2004 e il 2015 negli over 50 è del 2%, per un totale di 54.000 diagnosi. E nel 63% dei casi l’infezione è stata diagnosticata in ritardo, in fase già avanzata.

«Con l’utilizzo regolare del profilattico si possono evitare due casi su tre di malattia» spiega Pierangelo Clerici, presidente dell’Associazione microbiologi clinici italiani. «Ma gli italiani usano ancora troppo poco il condom, senza distinzioni tra giovani e adulti».

Il problema maggiore è che per alcune di queste malattie, come la sifilide, i sintomi possono manifestarsi anche a distanza di un mese dal contagio oppure addirittura non dare alcun segno.

È meglio, allora, andare sempre dal medico in caso di rapporti a rischio, grazie ai test più moderni è possibile avere una diagnosi tempestiva e iniziare subito una cura specifica.

Clamidia. Col test delle urine è sufficiente un’ora per avere la diagnosi, l’esame viene consigliato una volta all’anno ai teenager tra i 14 e i 22 anni, la fascia più a rischio.

«Di per sé non è una malattia grave se viene ben curata» sottolinea il dottor Clerici. «Il problema è che in oltre la metà dei casi è asintomatica. E per questo il batterio può lavorare silenziosamente per anni e provocare sterilità in un caso su dieci ». Il test va assolutamente fatto se a distanza di sette-dieci giorni da un rapporto a rischio compaiono perdite vaginali e dolori addominali. «Va consegnato in laboratorio un campione della prima urina del mattino» dice l’esperto. «La cura è composta da un trattamento antibiotico che va assunto per una-due settimane Quindi si ripete, per avere la certezza di avere debellato il batterio. Altrimenti, si continua la terapia».

Gonorrea. La diagnosi oggi è più rapida grazie a un test molecolare che dà l’esito al massimo in quattro ore. «Anche per questa malattia i casi si concentrano soprattutto tra i teenager» dice il dottor Clerici «E può causare sterilità in età adulta».

I sintomi iniziano a manifestarsi tra i due e i dieci giorni dopo il contagio con dolori alla parte bassa dell’addome, stanchezza esagerata, leggero bruciore alle vie urinarie e perdite biancastre o gialle-verdastre dall’odore sgradevole. Ma attenzione: anche la gonorrea in circa la metà dei casi non dà disturbi. Per questo i Centri statunitensi per il controllo delle malattie e la prevenzione, consigliano di effettuare comunque il test dopo un rapporto occasionale non protetto. «Viene prelevato un campione biologico dalla vagina oppure dall’uretra» aggiunge il dottor Clerici. «Se il risultato è positivo, va iniziata subito la cura antibiotica».

Sifilide. L’analisi viene effettuata sul sangue e ci vogliono due giorni per fare una diagnosi rapida.

La sifilide è provocata da uno dei batteri più contagiosi in assoluto, per questo rientra nell’elenco degli esami del sangue da eseguire nei primi mesi di gravidanza. A rischio, in generale, sono soprattutto gli over 50 e, se non viene curata, può provocare danni al sistema nervoso. «I sintomi compaiono tra una e tre settimane dal contagio» dice l’esperto. «Inizia con un nodulo sottopelle nella zona intima, simile a una pallina grande come l’unghia del mignolo. Spesso viene sottovalutato perché non dà dolore e in un paio di settimane si riassorbe da sé. Ma l’infezione avanza e a distanza di un paio di mesi il corpo si riempie di macchie color rosa salmone, con febbre e perdita di peso». Il test si può eseguire dopo una settimana dal rapporto sospetto perché il batterio è già in circolo. E va ripetuto nell’arco dei primi due mesi in caso di risultato negativo. «Qui l’antibiotico in assoluto più efficace è la penicillina» sottolinea l’esperto. «Con dosaggi e tempi da decidere al momento, in base all’infezione».

Hiv. Un autotest sulla saliva, acquistabile in farmacia, segnala se si è contratto o meno il virus Hiv con un’affidabilità prossima al 100 % ed è indicato per tutti e a qualsiasi età.

«Il batterio scatena una prima cascata di sintomi a distanza di sei, otto settimane dal contagio» spiega Carlo Federico Perno, direttore della medicina di laboratorio dell’ospedale Niguarda di Milano. «Di solito sono generici, come febbre, mal di gola, stanchezza, ingrossamento delle ghiandole linfatiche. Il problema, però, è che a volte il medico si ferma a una diagnosi basata sulla visita clinica, fidandosi del paziente che spesso cela informazioni importanti sulla sua vita sessuale».

I primi sintomi poi si acquietano, ma il virus continua il suo “lavoro” per molti anni e dà segno di sé quando ormai la malattia è avanzata, con disturbi anche molto gravi, ad esempio crisi frequenti di candidosi, ghiandole gonfie, forte dimagramento, polmoniti.

«Il test consiste in una striscia reattiva che cambia colore in caso di anticorpi Hiv nella saliva» aggiunge il professor Perno. «Diventa positivo circa tre-quattro settimane dopo il rapporto non protetto. E, per questo, va eseguito a distanza di un mese, dal possibile contagio. Ma dev’essere ben chiaro che, se si è contratto il virus, si è infetti da subito e si può trasmettere ad altri già dopo una settimana». Il test salivare va confermato con un’analisi del sangue da eseguire in ospedale. «La cura dell’Hiv in caso di sieropositività non ha nulla a che vedere con quella di un tempo» conclude il professor Perno. «Oggi si assumono al massimo due pastiglie di farmaci antivirali al giorno».

Papillomi e condilomi. Circa 8 giovani su 10 attraverso i rapporti sessuali contraggono il Papilloma virus, ma nella maggior parte dei casi l’organismo se ne libera senza lasciare tracce.

In una piccola percentuale dei casi, però, il virus rimane e può provocare le verruche genitali oppure i condilomi, delle formazioni benigne chiamate anche “creste di gallo”.

Il Papilloma è composto da oltre cento virus diversi e di questi, alcuni sono anche cancerogeni: possono provocare lesioni pretumorali sul collo dell’utero e aumentare il rischio di cancro in molte zone del corpo.

La vaccinazione, oggi è gratuita per maschi e femmine dodicenni. E per le donne l’hpv test che andrebbe eseguito ogni tre anni dall’inizio dell’attività sessuale o comunque dai 25 anni di età.

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