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Antibiotici: quando sono realmente essenziali?

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Casa e riposo: questo è ciò che i medici dovrebbero scrivere a molti pazienti.

Circa un quinto delle prescrizioni di antibiotici non sono infatti necessarie, trattandosi di malattie che migliorano da sole. Lo dicono gli esperti di Public Health England (Phe), agenzia del ministero della Salute inglese, come segnala la Bbc.

L’abuso di antibiotici rende le infezioni più difficili da trattare, creando dei batteri resistenti a molti farmaci.

Si stima infatti che 4 casi su 10 di infezione nel sangue da Escherichia coli non si possa trattare con gli antibiotici di prima scelta, e che entro il 2050 le infezioni resistenti nel mondo mieteranno più vittime di quante ne faccia il cancro ora.

Gli antibiotici sono essenziali nei casi di sepsi, polmonite, meningiti batteriche e altre gravi infezioni, mentre non lo sono per tosse o bronchite per esempio, che passano da sole in tre settimane, e l’antibiotico può “accorciarne” la durata solo di 1-2 giorni, dicono gli esperti inglesi.

“La maggior parte di noi guarisce dalle infezioni di volta in volta grazie al proprio sistema immunitario. Spesso gli antibiotici non sono necessari per disturbi comuni”, sottolinea Paul Cosford, direttore medico di Phe.

I pazienti non dovrebbero quindi andare dal medico aspettandosi che gli venga prescritto l’antibiotico, l’indicazione che dovrebbero ricevere, per infezioni che il nostro organismo può gestire da solo, è di “riposare, bere molti liquidi e usare farmaci per far passare dolore e fastidi, come il paracetamolo. Un medico è in grado di dire quando l’antibiotico è davvero necessario”, conclude.

Fonte: Ansa

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