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Nuovo vaccino contro l’HPV

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 L’idea è quella di riuscire ad abbassare sempre di più l’incidenza del cancro del collo dell’utero, e degli altri tipi di tumore correlati all’HPV: vulva, pene, ano e orofaringe.
Gli strumenti che abbiamo sono funzionanti – in termini di sicurezza e di efficacia – anche a distanza di anni.

Infatti, uno studio sul vaccino anti-HPV nonavalente, condotto su 14.215 donne reclutate in 105 strutture di 18 paesi di tutti i continenti e pubblicato su The Lancet, rafforza i risultati di una ricerca del 2015 pubblicata sul New England Journal of Medicine, estendendoli a sei anni.

La vaccinazione contro l’HPV dallo scorso marzo è nei nostri Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza, ed è offerta dal Piano nazionale vaccini a tutti i dodicenni, sia maschi che femmine.

Attualmente sono a disposizione un vaccino bivalente (contro i ceppi 16 e 18), tetravalente (contro i ceppi 6, 11, 16, e 18) e nonavalente (contro i ceppi 6, 11, 16 e 18 più  31, 33, 45, 52 e 58).

Nello studio da poco pubblicato, coordinato dai ricercatori dell’Università dell’Alabama Birmingham, le donne sono state seguite per oltre sei anni dopo la vaccinazione per testare l’efficacia del vaccino nel prevenire la malattia.

La metà del campione era stata vaccinata con il tetravalente l’altra metà con il nonavalente.
Ebbene, il vaccino a nove ceppi, oltre ad aver protetto contro i quattro genotipi di HPV del tetravalente in maniera simile all’altro, ha dimostrato un’efficacia del 97,4% nel prevenire infezioni e malattie dovute ai cinque genotipi di HPV aggiuntivi. Tutto questo – dicono gli autori – a fronte di un profilo di sicurezza sovrapponibile.I vantaggi del nonavalente. “Lo studio è un aggiornamento di quello registrativo del nonavalente di qualche anno fa, e rappresenta la conferma ulteriore dell’efficacia e della sicurezza del preparato, visto che ne indaga gli effetti dopo sei anni”, dice Sandro Pignata, direttore della UOC Oncologia medica uro-ginecologica all’Istituto Tumori di Napoli Fondazione Pascale. “Il nonavalente – continua l’oncologo –, vaccino già registrato in Italia, permette di passare da una copertura del 70-75%, che è quella associata al tetravalente, a una del 90%. Rispetto al precedente inserisce ceppi che in particolare colpiscono ano e testa-collo.  Stiamo parlando, quindi, di una protezione anche per gli uomini. Ricordiamo infatti – conclude Pignata – che i ragazzi, vaccinandosi, proteggono se stessi, oltre che le donne”.
Fonte: Repubblica
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