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25 novembre, Giornata internazionale contro la violenza sulle donne

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In Italia, tra le donne vittime di violenza, una su tre è aggredita dal partner e il fenomeno sta purtroppo dilagando anche tra le bambine.

Sulla base di questi dati che si celebrerà il 25 novembre la Giornata internazionale contro la violenza sulle donne. Violenze che spesso in Occidente vengono fatte dagli uomini “più vicini” alla vittima, mentre in altri Paesi possono assumere forme diverse, anche legate alla cultura: è il caso di molti paesi africani dove, circa 200 milioni di donne sono vittime della pratica della mutilazione genitale, come afferma l’Unicef.

Donne che saranno segnate per sempre a livello psicologico e fisico, con infezioni, maggiore mortalità e dolore al momento del parto.

In questi paesi si tratta di pratiche tradizionali, necessarie affinché le donne siano considerate rispettabili e pronte per essere spose e madri, nella realtà si tratta di atti barbarici.

Sarebbe bene che si pensasse anche ai 70 milioni di spose bambine nel mondo: il matrimonio precoce nell’Asia meridionale tocca percentuali superiori al 45%, ed è considerato espressione di una violazione dei diritti umani.

Di qui al 2020, se non ci saranno importanti cambiamenti, circa 142 milioni di bambine si saranno sposate prima di aver compiuto 18 anni, 37mila ogni giorno.

In Italia, come già detto, una donna su tre è aggredita dal partner e, tra quelle gravemente abusate, più dei due terzi accusano sintomi di stress da disordine post-traumatico a tre mesi dalla violenza. Hanno tra i 15 e i 49 anni e più di un terzo sono straniere, è quanto emerge dai dati di un progetto coordinato dall’Istituto Superiore di Sanità.

Allarme anche per le bambine: per il 17,9% di quelle fino ai 14 anni, la causa di accesso al pronto soccorso per violenza, è una aggressione sessuale.

Le conseguenze della violenza sullo stato di salute della donna assumono livelli di gravità che possono essere fatali, dal femminicidio, all’interruzione di gravidanza, o molto invalidanti come conseguenze di trauma (ustione, avvelenamento o intossicazione) e psicologiche con problemi di salute che includono stress post traumatico, depressione, abuso di sostanze e comportamenti auto-lesivi, tentativi di suicidio, disturbi alimentari e sessuali.

Il progetto è del Centro per il controllo delle malattie (supportato dal Ministero della Salute) e “REVAMP (Repellere Vulnera Ad Mulierem et Puerum) – Controllo e risposta alla violenza su persone vulnerabili”, coordinato dall’ISS e dall’Ospedale Galliera di Genova, che fa parte della rete ospedaliera che raccoglie i dati sulla violenza, nell’ambito dell’Injury Database europeo (IDB).

Per le donne vittime di violenza in età fertile (15-49 anni), oltre il 35% dei casi è dovuto ad aggressione da parte del coniuge o partner sentimentale (nei maschi è meno del 10%).

Quasi l’85% dei casi di violenze su donne è compiuta da conoscenti (nei maschi tale percentuale è inferiore al 40%).

“Nei pronto soccorso che hanno partecipato alla rilevazione – dice Alessio Pitidis dell’ISS, coordinatore per l’Italia della sorveglianza dell’Injury Database europeo – emerge che per le donne in età fertile vittime di violenza la seconda causa di accesso in PS è stata la violenza sessuale: un caso ogni venti. La violenza viene più spesso (88% dei casi) compiuta a mani nude o con violenza fisica, senza uso di strumenti d’offesa”. A 3 mesi dalla dimissione ospedaliera il 67,5% delle donne adulte vittime di violenza domestica o sessuale soffriva di stress da disordine post-traumatico. Un valore paragonabile a quello delle vittime dirette di grandi disastri, compresi attentati terroristici. “La presenza di una rete di servizi socio-assistenziali capillare, capace di interagire, dialogare e scambiare efficaci prassi metodologiche – dice Eloise Longo, coordinatrice del progetto REVAMP – è un modo per far emergere il fenomeno della violenza e sconfiggere il senso di isolamento e solitudine che circonda le donne. La rete è un modo per garantire alla donna supporto e protezione”.
Fonte: Ansa

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