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Cosa rischia il cervello se si dorme poco?

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La scoperta, grazie ad uno studio condotto sui topi, è stata pubblicata sul “Journal of Neuroscience” da Michele Bellesi dell’Università Politecnica delle Marche.

Se la deprivazione di sonno diventa cronica, il cervello comincia a distruggere e a digerire le proprie cellule danneggiate. Questo comportamento nasce dal bisogno di difendersi, inizialmente ha anche degli effetti benefici, ma nel tempo rischia di aumentare il pericolo di ammalarsi di Alzheimer o di altri disturbi neurologici.

Durante la sperimentazione i ricercatori hanno confrontato il cervello di animali che dormivano quanto volevano con quello di roditori tenuti svegli per 8 ore e con quello di un altro gruppo che non dormiva da 5 giorni, concentrandosi soprattutto sull’attività delle cellule gliali che formano il “sistema di pulizia” del cervello.

Gli scienziati hanno lavorato in particolare sugli astrociti e sulle cellule microgliali che eliminano le cellule danneggiate e i loro rifiuti.

E’ emerso che sia le cellule microgliali che gli astrociti erano più attivi nei topi assonnati che in quelli riposati.

Gli autori sottolineano: “Un’attivazione microgliale sostenuta è stata osservata nella malattia di Alzheimer e in altre forme di neurodegenerazione”.

“Abbiamo dimostrato per la prima volta che porzioni di sinapsi vengono letteralmente mangiate dagli astrociti a causa della perdita di sonno”, spiega Bellesi.

Questo potrebbe rappresentare inizialmente una buona cosa, perché si è visto che le sinapsi colpite sono quelle più “anziane”, e quindi più “stanche”.

“Sono come vecchi mobili che probabilmente hanno bisogno di più attenzione e pulizia”.

Il problema, ribadisce l’autore, sembra piuttosto l’iperattivazione della microglia. Queste evidenze potrebbero spiegare perché una mancanza prolungata di sonno rende le persone più vulnerabili al rischio di demenza, conferma Agnès Nadjar dell’università di Bordeaux in Francia, citata dal ‘New Scientist’.

Non è ancora chiaro se dormire di più può proteggere il cervello o salvarlo dagli effetti delle notti in bianco, lo studio andrà quindi sicuramente approfondito.

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